Anchorage Behavior of Headed Reinforcement: Literature Review

M. K. Thompson, J. O. Jirsa, J. E. Breen, and R. E. Klingner


The findings of a literature review of topics related to the anchorage of headed reinforcement are presented. The topics are grouped in three broad categories: conventional anchorage of reinforcement, anchorage of headed reinforcement, and a review of strut-and-tie modeling.

The review of conventional anchorage focuses on the mechanics of bond and code provisions for development length. A review of hooked bar anchorage is also included. The review of headed reinforcement includes historical background, a survey of commercially available products, a summary of the published research on headed reinforcement and related topics such as deeply embedded anchor bolts and the bearing capacity of rigid plates, and a review of pertinent code provisions. The review of strut-and-tie modeling (STM) includes an historical background, an overview of the STM design process, a review of code provisions, and a summary of selected research.

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